Black Lives Matter Toronto stalls Pride parade. While the challenges that exist in communities with smaller Indigenous and visible minority populations are sometimes overshadowed by the issues in highly diverse metropolitan areas, Owusu-Bempah warns that the makeup of a community can evolve rapidly, leaving police forces to play catch-up down the road.
The Toronto Police Service says one of the key impediments to achieving better representation is that the rate of officer turnover has been outpaced by the rapidly changing community.
Diversity Training in Law Enforcement Essay - Words
We're now at about 24 per cent," says Mark Pugash, director of corporate communications for the force. So there's not a great turnover.
We want to be able to encourage the best decision making possible," he said. Owusu-Bempah believes the lack of high quality data in the justice systems — as opposed to what is available in the U. The Calgary Police Service was the only agency surveyed that said it did not gather statistics on visible minorities and Indigenous people within its ranks. A diverse police force can also help to decrease the sense that individuals are being stopped and questioned solely because of their race.
This clearly applies when the officers and citizens are of the same race, but even encounters between white officers and minority citizens may be perceived as less racialized when the department has a critical mass of minority officers.
A representative police force can, in other words, have symbolic benefits that enhance the overall status of a police department and also reduce the perception that actions, such as stops or searches, are based on racial profiling. Most police chiefs realize the advantages of a department that represents the local community, but there are big challenges in recruiting more minority officers. Many Hispanics and African Americans are reluctant to consider a career in law enforcement — not surprising, given the history of policing in America coupled with more recent events. Highly-publicized incidents like the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson and Eric Garner in New York only make it more difficult for police departments to recruit minority officers.
Recruiters can have some success, however, if they broaden their outreach efforts to include churches and community centers — and if there are pre-existing positive relationships between the police and residents in those minority neighborhoods where community policing has already taken root, which can be built on. Although troubled interactions between minorities and police garner most of the headlines, there are neighborhoods in American cities where working-class and middle-class black and Hispanic residents — including youths — have better relationships with the authorities than on average, as I found in a study of Washington DC neighborhoods.
It is in these communities that the police can enhance their recruitment efforts and achieve at least some success. Racial diversification is one crucial ingredient in a larger program of reform that is required to improve police departments throughout the country. A representative police force is not a panacea — but it is a positive reform, and an achievable one.
Policing small communities
Introduction: Values Education in Policing Public debates about police behaviour often centre on issues of bias and diversity. V4V is intended to provide recruits with the knowledge of harms in the workplace and encourage them to have a voice to intervene. The relationship between the programme and its aims combined with the recruit values and their attitudes and perceptions of behaviours in workplace provide the basic logic model Fig. The desired outcomes of the logic model include enhanced recognition of poor behaviours and a stated willingness to intervene in them. Open image in new window.
This article reports on the RCT tests of the following hypotheses: H1 That recruits receiving the V4V programme are more likely to recognise prejudice and racist and sexist behaviour in the workplace than those recruits not receiving the V4V training. Defining Attitudes Supporting Equality and Diversity Attitudes supporting diversity are indicated by recognition and valuing of differences among individuals and placing a positive value on the difference they bring.
Can Training Impact These Attitudes? Experimental Design and Randomisation In May, July and August , police recruits, randomised by intake group, entered into training. Survey Constructs The survey was designed to measure a number of possible outcomes of the intervention, including the impact of the constructs of racism, sexism, empathy, tolerance for diversity, prejudice and discrimination, empathy, organisational legitimacy, and a stated willingness to intervene in sexist or racist behaviour in the workplace. Racist Behaviour Being able to recognise racism is important, and this type of behaviour was a targeted scenario in the V4V programme.
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The questions asked in the V4V survey were the following: How acceptable would it be for an employee of the Queensland Police Service to engage in one of these behaviours? Using racist language to describe a work colleague; Using racist language to insult or abuse a work colleague; Telling a racist joke. Sexist Behaviour The survey included questions about sexist behaviour towards women, discrimination, the unfair treatment of women and violence towards women.
Using sexist language to insult or abuse a work colleague; Using sexist language to describe a work colleague; Telling a sexist joke. Prejudice Some of the most obvious examples of prejudicial behaviours are those based on gender, ethnicity, disability, sexual preference and age McLeod The questions asked in the V4V survey were as follows: Beside each object or statement, please select the response which represents the degree of your positive or negative feeling: Some groups of people are simply not the equals of others; Some people are just more worthy than others; Some people are just more deserving than others; Some people are just inferior to others; To get ahead in life, it is sometimes necessary to step on others.
The questions asked in the V4V survey were as follows: Beside each object or statement, please select the response which represents the degree of your positive or negative feeling. If people were treated more equally, we would have fewer problems in this country; In an ideal world, all nations would be equal; We should try to treat one another as equals as much as possible all humans should be treated equally ; It is important that we treat other countries as equals.
Tolerance of Diversity Nakui et al. Response Rates for Survey The response rates for all stages of the survey are shown in Table 1. Table 1 Response rates for experimental and control groups over time. Baseline Results At baseline, the two groups experimental and control were equivalent on all test measures—just as expected due to the random allocation of recruits the groups.
Using a two-tailed t test for all constructs examined in this RCT, Table 2 presents results comparing the experimental and control groups at baseline. Table 2 Data and statistical analysis of constructs in survey at baseline.
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Unpaired two-tailed t tests were used for all constructs to assess any differences between experimental and control groups at the first follow-up measure immediately following the V4V training. Table 3 presents results comparing the experimental and control groups at follow-up 1. Table 3 Data and statistical analysis of constructs in survey post-intervention follow-up 1. The second follow-up survey took place six weeks after the V4V intervention.
Repercussions: How does lack of diversity affect policing?
A two-tailed t test was used for all constructs to assess whether or not the experimental and control groups were the same or different at the second follow-up period. In total, recruits completed surveys in the second follow-up survey, of which were from the experimental group and 89 from the control group.
Table 4 presents results comparing the experimental and control groups at follow-up 2. Recognise Racist Behaviour in the Workplace In this construct, the V4V programme did not increase the capacity of recruits in the experimental group to recognise racism in the workplace, but it had a clear effect: it buffered against declining capacities observed in the control group score results Fig.
At baseline, there was no difference between both groups.
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At follow-up, 1 there was an increase in the mean score of the experimental group to 2. The control group declined more over time relative to the experimental group. This suggests that while V4V-treated recruits changed little in recruit training, recruits without V4V got discernibly worse. While the score results for both the experimental and control groups over the duration of the study showed no significant differences, and both groups declined in their capacity to recognise sexist behaviour over time, the control group declined more over time relative to the experimental group Fig.
This suggests that the V4V programme did not increase the capacity of experimental recruits to recognise sexism but rather safeguarded against the steeper declining views observed in the control group.
Prejudice Figure 4 shows that by the last survey on the prejudice construct, the V4V group had retained its initial level while the control declined, with yet another buffering effect of the programme. While there was little difference between the experimental and control groups over time in their capacity to recognise prejudices in the workplace, that difference supported the consistent pattern of less decay in the V4V group.
Equality Figure 5 shows even clearer evidence of a buffering effect against an apparent values change in the course of recruit training. By contrast, the experimental group increased from baseline to first follow-up in their beliefs concerning equality in the workplace, followed by a small decline by the second follow-up survey 5. Overall, the data suggest that in the experimental group, after an initial boost to their feelings about equality, there was decay in their views, suggesting that some of the V4V treatment effect could be short-lived as a booster of initially good attitudes, but long-lasting as a vaccine against the decline shown in the control group.
Tolerance of Diversity in Workplace This measure Fig. At both the first and second follow-up surveys, the V4V group showed significantly higher levels of tolerance for workplace diversity than the control group. Recruits who did not receive the V4V training demonstrated a decline of tolerance from baseline results 4. The evidence is consistent with the interpretation that V4V protected recruits against declining tolerance for workplace diversity that appears to accompany the time spent in recruit training at the police academy. Ashburn-Nardo, L. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7 3 , — CrossRef Google Scholar.
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Essay about Diversity in Law Enforcement
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